Unit 5: Week 3: Connecting to the Internet (continued)

Unit 5: Week 3: Connecting to the Internet (continued)

Essential Questions

  • How will I know I’ve set up my network and the devices I’ve connected to it correctly?
  • What else can I do with my network beyond surfing the Web?
  • How can I be sure the users on my network and the information they share on it are safe and secure?

Big Ideas

Using the different types of services available through the Internet requires correctly setting up network devices as well as the Internet-enabled devices you and others use. These devices have different ports identified for optimal use, such as configuring a device to receive email correctly, and you should know what the most well-known ports are so you can set up and manage both the network and the devices on that network.

Once connected to a LAN or WAN, you should understand how the Domain Name System (DNS) and Universal Resource Locators (URLs) are used to identify the IP addresses you learned about last week as you explored dotted decimal notation (IPv4) and hexadecimal numbers (IPv6). But there are many additional possibilities beyond just surfing the Internet. You should understand how all of the network components you’ve been studying, including different hardware, software, and protocols come together to support uses like email, sharing documents through file-transfer protocol (FTP), and others.

Every network should also provide a safe experience for its users and protect the information that is connected to it or shared over it. There are various services that can monitor and keep a network safe.

Connection to Student Lives

Now that you have explored Internet Protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) you may have a better understanding that devices on a network can be identified. But it’s also important that these devices can accurately share information back and forth, because as you well know, the Internet does more than just display web pages. It supports communications through email, hosts videoconferencing through services like Zoom or Google Meet, connects gamers so they can play each other, and many other services. In order for these and other things to take place, the network servers and the devices you use have to be configured correctly.

You’ve probably been accessing information on the Internet through URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) for most of your life–at least most of the time you’ve been in school. You may have been taught to trust information from some domains, like .edu or .gov, more than others, like .com or .org. There are many different types of domains that use the Domain Name System (DNS) and Uniform Resource Locator (URL) protocols that you should understand.

And since you’re getting good at connecting to and using network service, think how many people will want to reach out to you to help them understand network services that you will be able to support, like setting up email accounts, sharing a printer, or even helping to secure a network. Not only will people thank you for your help, some will actually pay you for these skills!

Framing Problem

Students will work throughout the module to ultimately install and configure a SOHO (Small Office Home Office) network in week 4. They should capture decision points for their network solutions during the first three weeks, practicing relevant skills they will apply in week 4.

Cornerstone Assessment

Configure or review Ethernet settings for a NIC (Network Interface Card) by using the Network and Sharing Center (Windows 7 & 8) and/or Network & Internet (Windows 10) settings, depending on which are available. Explain ports and protocols by setting up an email client or by using FTP to share files with a class-related hosted service. See Activity 9-2: Configuring Network Connection Settings in The Official CompTIA A+ Core 1 & Core 2 Instructor Guide and its associated files for detailed steps as one method for practicing configuring network settings. Create brief presentations in various media that provide an overview of different network host services or security appliances and software. Share your presentations with your class and consider how to integrate them into your Help Desk Knowledge Base.

DPI Standards

  • NCCTE.2020.II21.02.01 - Compare TCP and UDP ports, protocols, and their purposes.
  • NCCTE.2020.II21.02.03 - Install and configure a basic wired/wireless SOHO network.
  • NCCTE.2020.II21.02.05 - Summarize the properties and purposes of services provided by networked hosts.
  • NCCTE.2020.II22.01.06 - Use Microsoft Windows control panel utilities.
  • NCCTE.2020.II22.01.08 - Configure Microsoft Windows networking on a client or desktop.

A+ Standards

TOPIC 8F: Network Services

1001-2.1 Compare and contrast TCP and UDP ports, protocols, and their purposes.
1001-2.5 Summarize the properties and purposes of services provided by networked hosts.

TOPIC 9A: Configure Network Settings

1001-2.3 Given a scenario, install and configure a basic wired/wireless SOHO network.
1002-1.6 Given a scenario, use Microsoft Windows Control Panel utilities.
1002-1.8 Given a scenario, configure Microsoft Windows networking on a client/desktop.


  • How ports and protocols are implemented within a network and how they function and keep data secure
  • The uses and limitations of TCP versus UDP
  • Well-known port numbers and their description by memory
  • DNS hierarchy
  • That web browsers request resources using a URL from an HTTP server and how URLs are constructed using the DNS hierarchy
  • The use and basic function of TLS (Transport Layer Security)
  • Common protocols used in sending email (SMTP, POP3 or IMAP)
  • The protocols supporting file and printer sharing on Windows networks versus Mac OS
  • Why one might use FTP
  • The major roles or categories of network service (e.g., authentication server, DHCP and DNS servers, LDAP, NetBIOS/NetBT)
  • When NetBT should be enabled on a network
  • Common protocols that support inventory management on a network
  • The possible needs for and potential risks for legacy and embedded systems
  • How Internet security appliances and software, such as IDS, IPS, and UTM can help protect a network and how they do this, generally
  • Two basic ways of implementing network connectivity for IDS and IPS or UTM, their strengths and weaknesses
  • How to use Windows to configure Ethernet settings for a NIC (Network Interface Card)
  • Why Wake on LAN (WoL) might be used
  • How to navigate the Network and Sharing Center (Windows 7 & 8) and Network & Internet (Windows 10) settings
  • What a VPN is used for and how a device can be configured to use a VPN


  • Configure an email account using POP and/or IMAP protocols
  • Configure a Network Interface Card (NIC) to a wired or wireless access point in Windows
  • Check system setup to determine if an onboard NIC is enabled
  • Enable or disable 802.11 standards of a wireless network card
  • Set up, or explain, Wake on Lan (WoL) and start a computer remotely.
  • Use the Network & Internet section of the Settings app in Windows 10 to review and configure wired and wireless settings.
  • Configure DHCP by using the Obtain an IP address automatically option in the Internet Protocol Properties
  • Configure, or explain, defining an alternative IP address configuration and why you might need to do so.


Network Services

Port number

Transport Control Protocol (TCP)

Negative Acknowledgement (NACK)

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

Well-known port numbers

Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Top Level Domains (TLDs)
  • Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)
    • Domain name
    • Host name
  • DNS server
    • Authoritative name server
    • Recursive resolver

Web Server

  • HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and HTTPS
  • Uniform REsource Locator (URL)
  • Intranet
  • Extranet
  • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
  • Transport Layer Security (TLS)
  • Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)
  • Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
    • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    • Post Office Protocol (POP3)
    • Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

File and Printer Sharing

  • Server Message Block (SMB) or Common Internet File system (CIFS)
  • Apple Filing Protocol (AFP)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

Network Host Services

  • Authentication Server
  • DHCP and DNS Servers
  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
    • Distinguished name
    • Relative distinguished name
  • Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) and NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT)

Inventory Management

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
    • Agent
    • Management Information Base (MIB)
  • Endpoint Management Server
    • Defense in depth
  • syslog

Embedded System

  • Closed network

Legacy System

Internet Security Appliances and Software

  • Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
    • Heuristic techniques
    • Snort
    • Suricata
  • Intrusion Protection System (IPS)
  • Unified Threat Management (UTM) appliance
    • Antivirus scanner
    • Firewall
  • Proxy Server

See also (covered in module 5-4C)



Remote Desk Protocol (RDP) port 3389

Configure Network Settings

Network Interface Card (NIC)

Ethernet settings

  • Signaling speed
  • Half or full duplex

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Roaming Aggressiveness
  • Transmit Power

Wake on LAN (WoL)

Wake-on-Wireless Lan (WoWLAN)

Dial-up Connection

Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN or cellular)

Virtual Private Network

Weekly Map


Introduction to problem

Online Pre-assessment

Review converting binary to dotted decimal notation

Team meetings to review project plan and goals


Review content resources with whole group

Small group and independent exploration of resources: Network Services and Discussion Activity 8-6

Contribute to team project


Hands-on exploration: Network Connection Settings

Small group and independent exploration of resources: Network Connection Settings and Discussion Activity 9-1

Team progress check with supervisor


Hands-on exploration

Activity 9-2: Configuring Network Connection Settings (can be continued to Friday)


Complete Activity 9-2, if necessary

Review converting binary to hexadecimal

Team progress check with supervisor

Online post-assessment

Monitor progress and adjust project plan as necessary

Lesson Ideas

Students continue their work from the previous week but should be given the opportunity to either configure or at least review Ethernet settings for a NIC (Network Interface Card) preferably in Windows 10 using Network & Internet settings. Students should develop at least a general understanding of Internet connections. The Windows-specific outcomes are from the 1002 objectives. If time is available, they should use Windows networking tools to establish and configure a connection with a workstation or desktop, but this topic is reviewed again in the 1002 course.

Consider having students work in pairs or teams to create documentation about different network host services or security appliances and software.

Potential Resources

The Official CompTIA A+ Core 1 & Core 2 Instructor Guide for Exams 220-1001 and 220-1002

  • Topic 8F: Network Services (537-550)
    • Activity 8-6: Discussing Network Services (551-552)
  • Topic 9A: Configure Network Connection Settings (556-569)
    • Activity 9-1: Discussing Network Connection Settings (570)
    • Activity 9-2: Configuring Network Connection Settings (571-574)

CompTIA also offers videos for purchase through their website or on ITPro.TV.

Professor Messer at and YouTube offers numerous free videos of various lengths for many of the topics for the CompTIA 220-1001 A+ Exam. They are easy to understand, narrated videos with visuals. If you are teaching a CompTIA course, the site notes “You’re welcome to use them as much as you’d like, provided you embed the videos with the associated YouTube link or link directly to my site. Please click the “Contact Us” link at the top of our web page and let me know how you’re using them.”

Entry Level I.T. Training from Technology Gee

  • TCP & UDP Ports and Protocols (Article | Video – 27:38)
  • Network Host Services (Article | Video – 19:31)
  • Basic Wired/Wireless SOHO Networks (Article | Video – 25:46)
  • Microsoft Windows Networking (Article | Video – 17:29) optional
  • Microsoft Windows Control Panel (Article | Video – 8:27) optional

Khan Academy

PowerCert Animated Videos on YouTube

Articles and Other Resources:

Cloudflare, a global networking company, provides a wealth of information on topics related to networks in it’s Learning Center. Consider these and explore others

Networking Tutorials from Lantronix, a global provider of Software as a Service, connectivity, engineering, and IotT services. Some, but minimal, product promotion may appear in this resource.

Tutorials from Cisco:

TCP versus UDP

Difference between TCP and UDP. Comparison table by Nitin Sharma on tutorialspoint

TCP vs. UDP – What’s the difference and which protocol is faster? By Kris Koishigawa for freeCodeCamp. Includes a link to How the Internet Works in 5 Minutes video (4:48)

DNS hierarchy

Address Hierarchy, Unit 4, Lab 1 from the Beauty and Joy of Computing

The Internet: IP Addresses & DNS video (6:44) from

What is DNS and the DNS Hierarchy by Jithin for

Transport Layer Security TLS

TLS Basics from Internet Society

What is Transport Layer Security (TLS)? By Zeus Kerravala for NetworkWorld

Protocols for sending email SMTP, POP3, IMAP

A Beginner’s Guide to Email Protocols: SMTP, POP3, and IMAP by Liquid Web, a website hosting company

Email protocols – POP3, SMTP and IMAP Tutorial from SiteGround, an website hosting company POP3 and SMTP Settings for Microsoft Outlook (2007 or 2010) by Steve Krause for groovypost

How to FTP

How to Connect to FTP Servers in Windows (Without Extra Software) by Chris Hoffman for How-To Geek

How to Use FTP by Jack Lloyd for wikiHow using the FileZilla FTP client

HTTP vs. FTP File Transfer by Jay Darrington for Techwalla